# Event Handling

Vue components interact with each other via props and by emitting events by calling $emit. In this guide, we look at how to verify events are correctly emitted using the emitted() function.

# The Counter component

Here is a simple <Counter> component. It features a button that, when clicked, increments an internal count variable and emits its value:

const Counter = {
  template: '<button @click="handleClick">Increment</button>',
  data() {
    return {
      count: 0
    }
  },
  methods: {
    handleClick() {
      this.count += 1
      this.$emit('increment', this.count)
    }
  }
}

To fully test this component, we should verify that an increment event with the latest count value is emitted.

# Asserting the emitted events

To do so, we will rely on the emitted() method. It returns an object with all the events the component has emitted, and their arguments in an array. Let's see how it works:

test('emits an event when clicked', () => {
  const wrapper = mount(Counter)

  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')
  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')

  expect(wrapper.emitted()).toHaveProperty('increment')
})

If you haven't seen trigger() before, don't worry. It's used to simulate user interaction. You can learn more in [Forms]./forms).

The first thing to notice is that emitted() returns an object, where each key matches an emitted event. In this case, increment.

This test should pass. We made sure we emitted an event with the appropriate name.

# Asserting the arguments of the event

This is good - but we can do better! We need to check that we emit the right arguments when this.$emit('increment', this.count) is called.

Our next step is to assert that the event contains the count value. We do so by passing an argument to emitted().









 













test('emits an event with count when clicked', () => {
  const wrapper = mount(Counter)

  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')
  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')

  // `emitted()` accepts an argument. It returns an array with all the
  // occurrences of `this.$emit('increment')`.
  const incrementEvent = wrapper.emitted('increment')

  // We have "clicked" twice, so the array of `increment` should
  // have two values.
  expect(incrementEvent).toHaveLength(2)

  // Assert the result of the first click.
  // Notice that the value is an array.
  expect(incrementEvent[0]).toEqual([1])

  // Then, the result of the second one.
  expect(incrementEvent[1]).toEqual([2])
})

Let's recap and break down the output of emitted(). Each of these keys contains the different values emitted during the test:

// console.log(wrapper.emitted('increment'))
[
  [ 1 ], // first time it is called, `count` is 1
  [ 2 ], // second time it is called, `count` is 2
]

# Asserting complex events

Imagine that now our <Counter> component needs to emit an object with additional information. For instance, we need to tell any parent component listening to the @increment event if count is even or odd:












 
 
 
 




const Counter = {
  template: `<button @click="handleClick">Increment</button>`,
  data() {
    return {
      count: 0
    }
  },
  methods: {
    handleClick() {
      this.count += 1

      this.$emit('increment', {
        count: this.count,
        isEven: this.count % 2 === 0
      })
    }
  }
}

As we did before, we need to trigger the click event on the <button> element. Then, we use emitted('increment') to make sure the right values are emitted.

test('emits an event with count when clicked', () => {
  const wrapper = mount(Counter)

  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')
  wrapper.find('button').trigger('click')

  // We have "clicked" twice, so the array of `increment` should
  // have two values.
  expect(wrapper.emitted('increment')).toHaveLength(2)

  // Then, we can make sure each element of `wrapper.emitted('increment')`
  // contains an array with the expected object.
  expect(wrapper.emitted('increment')[0]).toEqual([
    {
      count: 1,
      isEven: false
    }
  ])

  expect(wrapper.emitted('increment')[1]).toEqual([
    {
      count: 2,
      isEven: true
    }
  ])
})

Testing complex event payloads such as Objects is no different from testing simple values such as numbers or strings.

# Composition API

If you are using the Composition API, you will be calling context.emit() instead of this.$emit(). emitted() captures events from both, so you can test your component using the same techniques described here.

# Conclusion

  • Use emitted() to access the events emitted from a Vue component.
  • emitted(eventName) returns an array, where each element represents one event emitted.
  • Arguments are stored in emitted(eventName)[index] in an array in the same order they are emitted.